Heart attack (myocardial infarction): Every minute counts
Heart attack (myocardial infarction) is one of this country among the most common causes of death. A healthy lifestyle can but prevent the heart attack! That is why the recommendation is: possible risk factors (such as smoking or obesity) and prevent existing underlying diseases (such as hypertension) can be treated optimally.
Heart attack - also called a myocardial infarction or myocardial infarction - is the process in which a portion of the heart muscle due to a circulatory disorder dies:
Even the slightest suspicion of an acute heart attack, it is recommended immediately Ambulance (number 112) to call. For the fastest possible treatment is crucial to ensure that the underserved with blood heart region makes no permanent damage.
a to recognize heart attack so can in an emergency one life-saving head start bring: Because with enough knowledge about the symptoms of heart attack rises early to get the right professional help the chance.
With an acute heart attack (myocardial infarction) associated symptoms are usually pronounced. The typical signs for an acute heart attack are:
Instead of the pain some people feel even a strong pressure in the chest during a heart attack. Both symptoms typically last more than five minutes at. An important Differentiator for angina (Chest tightness) is that the pain during myocardial infarction:
Also, the sufferers are frightened and try associated with heart attack symptoms by painful Move to alleviate. People with angina pectoris behave, however quietly, fearing to aggravate the symptoms by physical exertion.
Most comes a heart attack surprised. The symptoms often make in the early morning hours noticeable. Following complaints go myocardial infarction often ahead:
The first harbingers often for a heart attack occur even early on: Many heart attack patients in Germany already had heart problems before it came to a heart attack, and were due to symptoms in treatment or were under medical supervision. Many have vascular dilation (cardiac catheter dilatation) or surgery to bypass a narrowed or blocked coronary vessel (so-called. Bypass surgery) behind. But even people without coronary heart disease can get a myocardial infarction.
By the way: Men have more often and much earlier a heart attack than women. In contrast, for women higher risk of dying from a myocardial infarction. The reason is not only the higher average of women affected age: When comparing the same age men and women have heart attacks in women, a higher mortality rate. Perhaps this is due to the in women are often atypical symptoms due. In many cases, both sufferers and physicians interpret the complaints wrong and recognize the infarct too late.
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The rules as typical of a heart attack (myocardial infarction) symptoms are present in a woman not always: Often the symptoms of a heart attack in women different pronounced than in men. Therefore, it is possible that both the women concerned and the doctors treating the symptoms Not which can have serious consequences, because heart attacks require quick action - seen as signs of a heart attack.
In a heart attack in women following symptoms may in the foreground are (or even the single be signs of myocardial infarction):
A heart attack (myocardial infarction) has its origins in the fact that a portion of Coronary artery (Coronary arteries) suddenly locked is. These vessels are coronary around the heart (corona means rim or crown). They usually supply the heart with oxygen-rich blood:
The oxygen needed by the heart to do its job - so to keep the blood circulation going and to supply so the entire body (organs, tissues and cells) with oxygen. If any portion of the coronary vessels is no longer supplied with blood and thus breaks off the oxygen supply to the affected heart muscle tissue dies: The result is a heart attack or myocardial infarction.
Responsible for a heart attack vessel occlusion can affect any part of the heart sick vessels that supply the heart with oxygen-rich blood. Depending on where this place is, you can following types differ from myocardial infarction:
In most cases, a heart attack affects the muscles of the left ventricle.
Of the vascular occlusion, which leads to heart attack, can different causes to have. He usually arises because a blood clot blocked a heart vessel. The going ahead primarily the so-called coronary heart disease (CHD), in which the blood flow to the heart muscle due to a hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) of the coronary arteries is disturbed:
Coronary heart disease is associated with a high risk of blood clots.
Learn the heart attack video as it can cause a heart attack!
There are many risk factors that promote atherosclerosis and thus a heart attack. The causes of an increased risk of heart attack are, for example:
The first indications of a heart attack (myocardial infarction) often arise on the basis of the complaints - such as severe chest pain that decrease neither rest nor vasodilator nitroglycerin spray. However, the typical signs of a heart attack may be missing - especially in women. To make a firm diagnosis, therefore, targeted research is needed.
The most important test for a heart attack is the electrocardiogram with a ECG to measure (electrocardiogram). The ECG provides evidence of myocardial infarction where there is (e.g., heart or heart front wall rear wall). In addition, the doctor can see whether a recent myocardial infarction, or that the infarct already took place a long time.
When a heart attack is also called enzyme diagnostics revealing: The dead by the myocardial infarction heart muscle requires certain proteins (so-called enzymes.) free, which are detectable in the blood. One of these enzymes is one of the creatine kinase (CK). Creatine kinase is mainly found in the muscles and brain. In cardiac muscle, there is a certain type of creatine kinase: CK-MB. When cells of the heart muscle to die after infarction, the heart enzyme CK-MB is increasingly available through its increased release from the heart muscle in the blood.
Using the heart muscle proteins troponin I and troponin T an acute heart attack can likewise diagnose. For one Quick test, with which one can determine a myocardial infarction after a few hours per enzyme diagnostics, these enzymes are most suitable. In case of damage the heart muscle tissue, these enzymes have also increased in the blood values.
In addition, indications of possible risk factors are important in a heart attack diagnosis. Such risk factors may be determined by further blood tests, the doctor - for example, cholesterol. In addition, a particularly fast computed tomography device can show whether the risk is increased for a myocardial infarction: the so-called EBT (Electron Beam Tomography). This device makes it possible to represent calcium deposits in the coronary arteries without intervention.
Depending on what effects the heart attack, different first aid measures may be necessary. In a myocardial infarction, it may in the worst case for immediate Cardiac arrest come - but it is also a so-called silent MI possible, the running virtually unnoticed.
Whether mild or severe myocardial infarction: At the slightest suspicion of a heart attack, it is important that you immediately activate the emergency response to emergency (112 or the local emergency number). To the rescue services arrive, is as a heart attack First aid to do the following:
After a heart attack can the first hours critical be: By appropriate immediate action, it is most likely possible to restore the blood flow to the heart muscle with medication or by dilation of the occluded coronary artery.
Of the emergency doctor initiates the first emergency measures to prevent the heart attack: It can detect dangerous heart rhythms and treat them accordingly.
in the hospital Once the person gets down access to the vascular system (central venous catheter, central venous catheter) to about continue to receive blood-thinning medication. Anyone who has difficulty in breathing, an acute heart failure or a minder supplying the body with oxygen (hypoxia), also receives oxygen via a nasal tube. Part of the emergency measures, it is also to constantly check the blood pressure and regulate if necessary. This often happens with nitrates: Nitrates relieve the heart and reduce the problems associated with the heart attack pain.
The most important thing during a heart attack goal of therapy is: the sealed blood vessel fast as can get back! What immediate measures to this so-called reperfusion therapy suitable depends on the ECG findings: Displays the ECG ...
A heart attack With ST elevation, it is recommended as soon as possible a so-called percutaneous coronary Intervention (Or PCI) to be performed. Here, the doctor tried the blood flow to the heart muscle by a so-called balloon restore. It works like this:
That after the heart attack occurs again vasoconstriction, a so-called stent prevent: This is a stent made of stainless steel that uses the doctor with the balloon catheter into the affected area. The stent may additionally be coated with drugs that are a reocclusion and thus prevent further myocardial infarction.
Alternatively, in a myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation can also be a Thromboembolyse (That is, a resolution of the causal blood clot) are: for this purpose, given the person concerned (by syringe or catheter) administered enzymes that break down the clot, or agents that activate the body's own enzymes for the degradation.
A heart attack without however, ST elevation is suitable neither the balloon nor the Thromboembolyse. Instead, the emergency measures consist in the to inhibit blood clotting (E.g., with aspirin, clopidogrel and heparin). A Cardiac catheterization (And, depending on individual circumstances possibly treatment) is recommended - depending on individual risk - within the first two hours or later. In general, the cardiac catheterization takes place within the first three days after myocardial infarction.
After a heart attack is at least two to three days a Monitoring in the ICU necessary because the first 48 hours after infarction are particularly critical.
Runs a heart attack without complications, the hospital stay lasts 7 to 14 days. Thereafter, further action will be taken in a rehabilitation clinic or outpatient therapy center. Among the local activities include:
Another important measure after a heart attack is permanent drugs take. The main funding for these long-term treatment are:
The drug maintenance therapy after a heart attack is the same, which is also against coronary heart disease (CHD) is used. The drugs used to reduce the risk of re-infarction. Other recommended measures after a recovering from myocardial infarction consist ...
In a heart attack (myocardial infarction) is the During the first hours for forecasting crucial: Only if we succeed in this time window to restore blood flow to the occluded vessel, produced at the underserved with blood the heart muscle no permanent damage.
After a heart attack is damaged heart muscle tissue converts the further course in connective tissue around and scarred. This tissue can not contract and actively move. Thus, it is useless for the pumping of the heart - it can no longer therapy change. Therefore it is vital to call at the first sign of myocardial infarction the doctor immediately 112!
One year after their heart attack at least 80 percent of those affected live. The prognosis is better, the less risk factors for myocardial infarction (such as smoking, obesity, advanced age) are present. The worst prognosis have people with multiple risk factors.
As a heart attack in women often causes atypical signs, women generally have a less good prognosis than men. Because it can easily happen that both the affected woman herself and the doctors treating myocardial infarction Not recognize as such. Thus, life-saving medical assistance for women often come too late.
In a heart attack (myocardial infarction) may in the further course various complications occur:
The heart contracts - stimulated by electrical impulses - together and pumps blood into the systemic circulation. In a heart attack, the electrical stimulus may spread to the affected areas disturbed be - to severe arrhythmia. Besides, it can fusiform to the damaged areas or saccular extensions (. So-called aneurysms) come have life-threatening complications result in: The heart muscle may tear (rupture) or result in blood clots (thrombi).
Of the people who heart attack a Not survive, most die in an early phase of infarction to sudden onset of cardiac arrhythmias (ventricular fibrillation). This can lead to cardiac arrest. In a myocardial infarction with cardiac arrest, a rescuer must immediately begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Who within three to five minutes receives a cardiac massage and ventilation in cardiac arrest, may again come to life, so that a Chance of survival consists.
Are the hospital treatment and rehabilitation completed after a heart attack, is a thorough follow-up announced: After überstandenem myocardial infarction most affected are their lives on drugs reliant. Here come (if there is nothing against their income) mainly following means are used:
It is also important after a myocardial infarction, to treat elevated blood sugar.
Overall, the same drugs are recommended as the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD) for care after a heart attack. Because of the possible side effects of drugs is a regular and thorough medical specialist monitoring advisable to early detection of adverse effects of long-term treatment (by internists or cardiologists) and to counteract them.
After an acute heart attack in addition to these medical follow-up also plays a lifestyle change a big role, because: In the long run, it is not only important for the prognosis to eliminate the risk factors for another myocardial infarction. Crucial for recovery is to consistently pay attention to a healthy lifestyle.
You can prevent a heart attack (myocardial infarction) by your protect heart and risk factors for the development of a prevent atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries). This will succeed so:
If you want to prevent a heart attack, it is in the nutrition especially important to take little animal fat and low in sugary foods. are instead fruit and vegetables highly recommended. Access instead of sugary sodas prefer to dilute Fruit or vegetable juices back. Also on fast food you should your heart's sake better without.
Especially with an increased risk of myocardial infarction prevention is important. If you have an increased risk of heart attack (such as smokers, diabetics and people with high blood pressure, severe obesity or high cholesterol levels), it is highly recommended that you regularly your Seek medical help! All these measures are after wise one recovering from heart attacks because they can prevent further heart attacks.