Lung cancer (lung cancer, lung cancer)
more symptoms of lung cancer include
Especially smokers should these signs Immediately call their doctor attention. He refers the patient with suspected lung cancer then to a specialist in lung disease - a pulmonologist. Because basically, the earlier lung cancer is treated, the greater the chance of recovery.
Lung cancer is a malignant tumor of the lung. A lung cancer develops from the Airway cells, the bronchi. The cells degenerate and proliferate uncontrollably. They look different than "normal" Cells of the bronchial tubes, divide more rapidly and destroy by their rapid growth healthy tissue.
Depending on, how large the tumor is and how far he already spread to has one shares in lung cancer four different stages on.
Lung cancer is considered stage IV as incurable! There are in practice only very few cases where a patient is at this stage could still be cured. In general, the life expectancy is rather low so: It is estimated that only one survived out of 100 people with lung cancer stage IV the next five years.
What causes lung cancer? Our video shows it to you.
Physicians differ grossly two types of lung cancer:
This division is based on the Appearance of the tumor tissue under the microscope. The tumor is important for the choice of treatment method.
The most people with lung cancer (80 percent) suffer from non-small cell lung cancer. As the name suggests, the non-small cell lung cancer is under microscopic analysis of larger cells. These tumors grow relatively slowly and mainly in limited areas of the lung. They form slowly metastases. Therefore, non-small cell lung cancer in its early stages can often operational remove.
at about one in five lung cancer is a small cell lung cancer in front. The small cell lung cancer is more aggressive: It grows quickly and spreads at an early stage with metastases in other organs. Therefore, the life expectancy of those affected is rather low. The best survival prospects exist when doctors combine several therapies with each other - as chemotherapy plus radiotherapy or surgery.
The forecast is in lung cancer overall unfavorable. Life expectancy depends on one lung cancer especially of the Type of tumor (Small cell or non-small cell lung cancer) and the stage from. In early stages, and especially if the lung tumor was completely removed, the majority of those affected survive the first five years after diagnosis.
The main cause of lung cancer is by far the smoking! Approximately 90 percent of all lung cancer patients are or were smokers. The risk depends primarily on how much a person has smoked. Experts express this on the basis of pack years from the more cigarettes smoked, the higher the risk of cancer.
But to smoke not only makes himself sick, even passive smoking increases of lung cancer the risk - and by a factor of 1.3 to 2. So if stopping smoking, the risk for lung cancer can significantly reduce - especially for themselves, but also for his fellow man!
What causes lung cancer?
In cancer, certain cells of the body degenerate and proliferate uncontrollably. They form a tumor which - called malignant lung tumor - if it is in the lungs. In lung cancer cell change is mainly composed of the mucosal cells of the bronchial tubes.
Experts believe that interact many different influences in the development of lung cancer. Primarily, these are harmful substances that enter the breathing air into the lungs. They are crucial in ensuring that convert the mucosal cells of the bronchial tubes or cells of the lung tissue gradually into cancer cells.
Foremost of these is by far the smoking! cancer every year in Germany from lung cancer around 50,000 people. Approximately 90 percent of these patients are or were smokers. The risk of developing lung cancer is 24 times higher than in men who have never smoked in male smokers.
The following applies: The more cigarettes you have smoked in your life, the higher your risk of lung cancer.
How many cigarettes you have not smoked and how much money you have spent on it? To the computer ...
About five percent of all lung cancers are caused by carcinogenic substances with which the victims had contact during their work. Especially the working material asbestos is at the center: it is in this group responsible for most cancers.
The following groups of substances are considered carcinogenic:
lung scarring, which have arisen as a result of inflammation or injury, potentially leading to increased risk of cancer. Also genetic predisposition may increase the risk of lung cancer: If a parent is suffering from a lung cancer, the risk of children increases by two to three times.
Multi-stage concept: Of the risk factors for cancer
Typical symptoms of lung cancer are
But the early signs of lung cancer can also occur in a normal cold. Therefore, a lung cancer is often only relatively discovered late. Seemingly harmless colds with coughs that last longer than three weeks, so you should investigate a pulmonologist.
in the advanced stage lose those affected often within a short time a lot of body weight and have - sometimes bloody - ejection. In addition, breathing them is difficult and there may be fever and night sweats occur.
The earlier lung cancer is treated, the better the chances of recovery. Especially smoker over 40 years, the first possible signs of lung cancer should therefore not be taken lightly!
If the lung cancer more advanced, can metastases form (secondary tumors). Especially the small cell lung cancer often metastasizes. Most often occur
In secondary tumors in the central nervous system such as the brain can cause nerve damage. Those affected with lung cancer then develop symptoms such as:
Also, give some of the tumors hormones into the blood and thereby influence the natural hormone levels (so-called. Paraneoplastic syndromes).
On suspicion of lung cancer, the doctor begins the diagnosis usually with imaging tests such as x-rays or computed tomography (CT) of the lungs - especially if the patient smokes regularly and simultaneously about symptoms such as cough, bloody sputum complains, shortness of breath, fever and weight loss.
The important diagnostic measure with suspected lung cancer is a lung (bronchoscopy). Here, the doctor pushes very carefully a thin, flexible tube through the mouth into the airways before. At the end of the hose there is a small camera and tiny instruments for taking tissue samples.
The bronchoscopy is not in itself painful, can for the patient but be very uncomfortable. Therefore, the airways become local anesthetic before the examination using a spray. If desired, the victims can also get a light anesthetic and a sedative.
for a further lung cancer diagnosis and the later treatment induce physicians usually following tests:
For lung cancer, the treatment depends, among other things
The reason: Small cell and non-small cell lung tumors respond differently to the various treatment methods - particularly to chemotherapy.
Most people with lung cancer suffer from a so-called non-small cell Lung cancer. A non-small cell lung cancer can be treated surgically, as a rule, as long as no secondary tumors (metastases) are present. If it is possible, a non-small cell lung cancer at a surgery to completely remove, there are good chances of recovery.
If the lymph nodes in the area or the tumor has grown into surrounding tissue, can after surgery radiotherapy be useful. Are distant metastases or particularly large tumors before, individuals also get alongside radiotherapy in certain cases chemotherapy.
Sometimes get concerned with non-small cell lung cancer first chemotherapy or a combination of radiation and chemotherapy (so-called. Radiochemotherapy). The tumor is thereby often smaller and easier to remove in one operation subsequently. In this procedure, doctors speak of a neoadjuvant therapy.
If the lung cancer already spread - that are secondary tumors available - the treatment consists mostly of chemotherapy, sometimes in combination with radiation. In chemotherapy, cytotoxic drugs are used - ie drugs that destroy the rapidly growing tumor tissue. A typically employed in non-small cell lung cancer drug cisplatin, which is combined with other cytotoxic drugs. In certain patients and newer, so-called targeted drugs are eligible. These include bevacizumab or gefitinib.
Sufferers who are suffering from a small cell lung cancer, are usually not operated. Because at the time of diagnosis her tumor in 75 percent of cases has already Distant metastases educated.
The small cell lung cancer is a lung cancer that is particularly sensitive to a chemotherapy responding. The drugs used in chemotherapy, called cytotoxic drugs. There are cell poisons that particularly fast-growing cells - including cancer cells - can stop their growth. The benefit of chemotherapy lies with small cell lung cancer, among other things, that the cancer cells in the Distant metastases treated as well become.
Most complements a radiotherapy the treatment of small cell lung cancer. Radiation therapy may be followed, for example, chemotherapy and alleviate lymph node metastases or lung ailments due to the tumor.
The irradiation must also prevent the goal of possible brain metastases - this head is irradiated. This treatment lead physicians through even if so far no evidence of brain metastases exist.
In operations, the small cell lung can be removed only when the tumor is still very small - so if he was discovered early (stage I). This is in this form of lung cancer, but only rarely the case.
In lung cancer, life expectancy has total rather low - but depend course and prognosis also on several factors, including:
So women have, for example, a more favorable prognosis than men. When non-small cell lung cancer are life expectancy and chances of recovery higher than in small cell lung cancer generally.
In general: Lung cancer is one with about 50,000 new cases per year to the more common cancers in Germany. Due to the generally rather unfavorable prognosis of lung cancer, however, is the cause of cancer death in men (With a ratio of 25 percent) and second most common in women (15 percent).
Particularly striking: ill since the late 1990s and die more and more women lung cancer, whereas the rates for men declined in the same period. This trend mirrors against the increasing consumption of cigarettes among women and the declining cigarette consumption in men.
In lung cancer, life expectancy and the chances of recovery are early stages best: After 5 years still live 40 to 50 percent of sufferers with early lung cancer is detected. In later stages of lung cancer, however, the life expectancy decreases.
Overall, the relative 5-year survival rate is at Men with lung cancer about 16 percent in women about 21 percent. This means that 16 of 100 men and 21 100 women have not yet died 5 years after initial diagnosis of their cancer. The survival rate for lung cancer is comparatively low because the tumor is often diagnosed late.
The non-small cell lung cancer occurs much more frequently. This form is less aggressive: The tumors grow more slowly and form rare metastases. The following table shows the absolute 5-year survival rate - that is, it will be counted and the deaths that are attributed to other causes (for example, when someone dies with lung cancer to heart attack).
The small cell lung cancer is more aggressive: It spreads faster (for example, in the space between the two lungs) and early metastasizes. The prognosis is poor in accordance with this tumor shape therefore.
Regular follow-ups serve a recurrence lung cancer (so-called. recurrence) timely identification and possible consequences to treat the radiation or chemotherapy. In addition to the physical examination and blood test the doctor this x-rayed the lungs. In some cases, additional tests such as a re-mirroring the lungs (bronchoscopy), an ultrasound or a CT scan for cancer follow-up in lung cancer may be useful.
The check-ups are in the first two years after completion of treatment every three months instead; semi-annually from the third year. If the lung cancer therapy already back 5 years, and there was in the meantime, no relapse, meet check-ups at longer intervals.
For many people with lung cancer (lung cancer) is after the operation the opportunity to rehabilitation to complete. These measures should only be conducted in clinics specializes in neoplastic diseases are. Those affected will receive during their stay here help to improve their physical and mental quality of life and return to professional life.
Nationwide support group for cancer sufferers: www.selbsthilfe-lungenkrebs.de