What is a gene?
© Jupiterimages / Comstock Images
A gene is the carrier of genetic information, which in every human cell
located. It describes a section of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid,
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid), the containing genetic information. A gene is for
the cells were, a certain code they decrypt. gain by
they information they primarily for the construction of proteins
(Protein biosynthesis) need.
Proteins (proteins) are composed of amino acids. They determine the structure and function
every living cell in the body and control biochemical processes of metabolism. The
Sequence of amino acids is set out in the DNA -; it dictates how
is sit down proteins and designed as the human body.
The DNA of a cell consists in chemical terms from four basic components:
the so-called nucleotides Adenin, Cytosin, Guanin and
Thymin. In a cell, these four blocks (A, C, G, T) form -
linked to a long chain - the entire information indicating the
Cell needs to form proteins.
The entire genetic information or DNA of a cell is also genome
called. The genome contains the complete information of the development
is living being necessary. The entire thread-like structures inside the cell, the
contains genetic material and proteins called chromosome. As the information of a
is arranged portion of the DNA depends upon the sequence of the four different
Blocks A, C, G and T - the so-called gene sequence -
According to the information, which carries a gene, ribonucleic acid (RNA is, English RNA
created for deoxyribonucleic acid). The RNA in the cell has different
Functions. It plays an essential role in protein biosynthesis, especially.
It transmits in the form of messenger RNA (messenger RNA, mRNA), the genetic
Information on so-called ribosomes in the cells. Ribosomes are tiny
Bodies inside the cell that the with the genetic information as a template
assemble amino acids to a chain molecule (Translation). The
folded chain molecule is the protein.
In the human body there are approximately 30,000 to 40,000 genes. The nucleus of each cell in the body contains these genes. But it is only the
Gene actively required by the particular cell to function. Thus, in a
Hair root cell only the genes active that can grow a hair.
Using genetic engineering, it is now possible genes from one organism to
to transplant other.