Ambroise Paré

21 October 2017

* 1510 in Laval in France

† 22 December 1590 in Paris

Ambroise Paré holds in his home country "Father of French surgery" and beyond as "innovator" and "Pioneering surgery", He attracted huge stir when he amputations after the artery under belt (ligation) and thus the sole use of cautery replaced in hemostasis. Because of his experience as a surgeon - that is, as a surgeon in military service - recognized in various campaigns Ambroise Paré that gunshot wounds are not poisoned, as was believed previously, and that it therefore does not have to be filled with boiling oil, but that this treatment highly is harmful. Paré it was the skull openings executed by drilling (trepanning) with a for that time good chance of survival of those affected. He developed countless still in use today, surgical instruments and dental created cutlery and basic designs for the production of prosthetic devices.

It was only in the 12th century, the surgery had separated from the medicine. While the latter became one academic subject, remained surgery "just" a craft, and so the surgical work was not conducted by academically trained doctors currently Ambroise Parés, but remained mostly technically trained medical assistant as baths or barbers left, who joined forces as craftsmen in guilds. To become a member of such Surgeons' Guild, had to undergo a corresponding apprenticeship and complete this with an examination under the supervision of academically trained healer.

Including Ambroise Paré had gone through an apprenticeship with a barber, who was also active surgically, and then - worked on an outpatient basis - according to the custom of his time. Then Paré got a permanent job at the Hôtel-Dieu in Paris, who was then the most modern hospital in Europe, where it stank from dirt and pus, and had to share a bed of straw where usually several patients. Afterwards Ambroise Paré served the French König Franz I (1494-1547), who led several wars over Italy and European dominance against the Spanish Kaiser Karl V (1500-1558), as a surgeon. 1552 Ambroise Paré became the "Chirugien du Roi" appointed, a position he also held under the successors of the king. His reputation as a surgeon was so large that it in 1554 against the opposition of the powerful Parisian medical faculty, which the "simple Barbier" rejected, was admitted to the surgical staff. Ambroise Paré practiced, designed and published to old age and died universally honored with 80 years.

In addition to numerous innovations in surgery, in particular the war surgery, Ambroise Paré first described in two papers (1561 and 1575) in detail prostheses and orthopedic appliances. Particularly well known are Parés representations of artificial hands, arms and legs that he can make from a friendly Parisian locksmith, and are substantially different from the conventional wooden expedients. Ambroise Paré published these representations so that other locksmiths and watchmakers could rebuild the apparatus. Besides artificial eyes Paré recommended the artificial nose made of metal and a fake mustache or opaque masks to conceal facial injuries. He developed artificial front teeth made of bone, ivory or shark teeth that have been secured by gold or silver wire to the adjacent teeth, obturators for concealing palate defects as a result of gunshot wounds, iron corsets against spine deformities and correction of clubfoot in children special boots. To men who had lost their penis to the root, to allow urinating standing up, he planted an artificial urethral ivory or wood. Parés writings - more than 20 books that he wrote in his French mother tongue, as he was ignorant as a barber Latin - give an insight into the "sore drug" his time in which handed down mixed with new. Many of its procedures and technical equipment, but also Parés writings have regularly led to heated argument with the Medical Faculty, which, though accepted the surgeons as a helper, however, would not let them detract from their authority.


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