© Jupiter Images / iStockphoto
Remember your cholesterol and let the egg today 'away! A saying that many know one from the breakfast table. For there is no cholesterol enjoys particularly good reputation. Rightly? On this question, there is no clear answer: experts argue about with whom and to what extent high-cholesterol foods actually raise cholesterol levels and thus in the long term pose a risk to the vessels.
Approximately one in three German aged between 18 and 79 has too much cholesterol in the blood - cholesterol levels are elevated. A high blood cholesterol is a risk factor for vascular diseases represent. Possible consequences of developing atherosclerosis are heart attack and stroke. Especially when combined with other risk factors such as smoking and high blood pressure high cholesterol damages arteries.
Just animal food contain cholesterol - in very different quantities. Especially cholesterol are chicken eggs (about 250 milligrams of cholesterol per piece, included in the egg yolk), organ meats (such as bovine liver, and liver sausage), eel, butter and lard. Residents of the western industrialized countries are at about 300 to 500 milligrams of cholesterol in the diet per day per person.
But cholesterol reaches not only about eating and drinking in the body. He produced it themselves, especially in the liver, but also in the intestine. The also called cholesterol fat-like substance is essential for the body.
As recommended should not be more than 300 milligrams carry cholesterol per day if the cholesterol level is increased. The body provides daily about twice the amount (600 milligrams) ago - but the value varies widely. In addition to nutrition, factors such as stress (the cholesterol increased) a role. Coming back to the eggs: General persons with too high Cholesterol recommended that no more than two to three a week to eat eggs.
The body tries to cholesterol levels as possible constant to keep:
To what extent the cholesterol absorbed from food really affects the cholesterol levels is not fully understood. There are conflicting results from studies in part. Is certain is that an unfavorable, high-fat diet increases the cholesterol level - especially if there is an inherited predisposition. The cholesterol level is highly dependent on the amount of fat that takes a person overall to be. Especially the saturated fat consequence.
Despite the sometimes unclear situation there is clear Recommendations, should be the cholesterol level as high. The cholesterol levels of healthy adults should below 200 milligrams per deciliter (Mg / dl) are - measured in the blood serum. This value is made up of several components. The two most important representatives are the HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol:
An elevated cholesterol level can have its cause in a hereditary disorder lipid metabolism have (familial hypercholesterolemia). but is much more common non-familial hypercholesterolemia, in which several genetic factors come together to drive the value up.
When HDL cholesterol refers to a compound from the lipid cholesterol and a so-called carrier protein. HDL cholesterol is considered the "quality" Cholesterol. The poorly soluble in water and blood cholesterol combines with the carrier protein, so it can be better transported in the blood.
The combination of such a carrier protein (also called apolipoprotein) and the lipid moiety - here the cholesterol - is called lipoprotein. HDL cholesterol is about half of the carrier protein and the other half from cholesterol. In addition to the HDL cholesterol to LDL cholesterol is of great importance.
The names of lipoproteins derived from the English name for their density from:
HDL cholesterol as a useful cholesterol represents the counterpart to "bad" LDL cholesterol is. HDL cholesterol eliminates Cholesterol from the blood. It has the special property of already deposited in the vessel wall cholesterol take (LDL-cholesterol) and transported to the liver. There it is converted into bile acids and can be excreted in the bile into the intestine.
Because of these features protects HDL cholesterol from hardening of the arteries (Arterioskleorse). In contrast to LDL cholesterol (high value = unfavorable) is a high value for the HDL cholesterol Cheap.
In people who have no other risk factors for diseases of the cardiovascular system, the value for the HDL cholesterol should more than 50 milligrams per deciliter (Mg / dl) or about 1.3 millimoles per liter (mmol / l) are (in women) and more than 40 milligrams per deciliter or about 1.0 millimoles per liter (mmol / l) in men.
The following factors can affect the concentration of HDL cholesterol increase (positive):
The following factors can affect the concentration of HDL cholesterol reduce (negative):
LDL cholesterol is considered harmful. Anyone who has high cholesterol, usually has too much LDL cholesterol in the blood. The name LDL is derived from the English name for the low density of these so-called lipoproteins: Low Density Lipoproteins shortly LDL.
LDL cholesterol is composed of about a quarter of the carrier protein, called apolipoprotein, and three-quarters of cholesterol. It passes from the liver to the blood to the cells, is there using special receptors (Docking sites) is introduced and further processed.
What danger comes from LDL cholesterol? too much LDL is in the blood or are too few receptors present, can in the vessel walls deposits form. They arise when the body's own phagocytes (Macrophages) absorb excess LDL cholesterol from the blood. The macrophages migrate to the vessel walls, and with time circumscribed vasoconstriction (through a series of complex processes are called plaques).
Especially often such deposits in the vessels that supply the heart with blood arise: the coronary arteries. This disease is called coronary artery disease (CAD). By plaques can lead to a complete shutter of the affected vessel come - that endanger the blood supply.
Tear down a plaque, platelets accumulate very quickly (platelets). They form a Blutpfropf, called thrombus which then completely occludes the vessel. Result of vessel occlusion in the coronary arteries: a heart attack. Are closed vessels in the neck or in the head, a stroke can result.
In people who have no other risk factors for diseases of the cardiovascular system, the concentration of LDL cholesterol should below 150 milligrams per deciliter (Mg / dl) or below 3.9 millimoles per liter (mmol / l) are.
Important starting point, to lower the LDL cholesterol, is physical activity: Those who move regularly increases the favorable HDL cholesterol and lowers LDL cholesterol. Some people with elevated cholesterol levels may reduce their value if they change their diet.