Hematemesis (haematemesis)

21 October 2017

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Vomiting blood is a special form of vomiting, in which the victims spew blood. The blood comes thereby usually from the top portion of the digestive tract, such as from the stomach or esophagus. GP designate blood vomiting "hematemesis",

The causes of vomiting blood are mostly bleeding in upper gastrointestinal area, So in the initial part of the digestive tract. Bleed it in deeper sections (as in the colon), there is usually blood in the stool - that is not always visible.

Blood from the esophagus, the stomach or the upper part of the small intestine (the so-called. Duodenum) is in contrast vomit good to see - the blood has to, however, Not necessarily be red:

In addition to a gastric ulcer and injured varicose veins of the esophagus and gastric mucosa defects, mucosal damage in the esophagus or duodenal ulcer as coming causes question. Only in very rare cases, gastric cancer is the reason for the blood vomiting.

Also excessive alcohol consumption over several years (for example, in alcoholics) can lead to vomiting blood may. The reason is not the alcohol per se, but the health consequences that can bring the alcohol with them - such as liver disease, or the so-called Mallory-Weiss syndrome (this is by mucosal tears in the esophagus)

Facts about vomiting blood

Who suddenly vomits blood, should seek medical attention immediately. For vomiting blood, it always is a emergency!

Vomiting blood should be ascertained always medically - these are an emergency!

hematemesis the doctor recognizes best if the person concerned has passed, for example, in the context of a hospital, and the doctor can assess the vomit directly. But the description of the patient or his relatives may suffice: Important for the doctor is here, among other things, the color of the vomit: 

Then the doctor with various investigations must quickly find out the cause of hematemesis, to act quickly and correctly. This, first, the doctor explains in an interview whether diseases are known, which can lead to vomiting blood, such as a stomach ulcer or esophageal varices, as can occur in severe liver disease. 

He then leads a reflection of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum by (esophagogastroduodenoscopy, EGD or short gastroscopy) to see where exactly it bleeds.

Sometimes further tests are necessary:

The therapy the hematemesis depends on the particular cause. Generally it concerns with vomiting blood a emergency. The person concerned must be treated immediately. The ultimate goal is to stop the bleeding.

Often this is already possible during the mirroring of the stomach and duodenum: Is about an esophageal varices the cause of hematemesis, the doctor binds these varicose vein with a kind of rubber band off (ligation). Alternatively, the physician injects the varicose vein with a drug (sclerotherapy) or closes the bleeding with a plastic adhesive (Histoacryl). He can stop the bleeding and there is no longer vomiting blood.

Sometimes surgery is needed, for example in a bleeding stomach ulcer. The surgeon removes the inflamed tissue in a surgical procedure and sutured bleeding vessels to stop the bleeding and to prevent the blood vomiting.


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