Schwangerschaftsdiaetes (gestational diabetes)
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In Germany 4 of 100 pregnant women develop a pregnancy diabetes is rising. Gestational diabetes can be from about the 20th week of pregnancy develop and usually disappears after the birth of himself. But he needs to be treated.
What is a gestational diabetes (gestational diabetes)?
The term refers to gestational diabetes have high blood sugar levels of the mother during pregnancy. He is in the jargon known as gestational diabetes (gestational = pregnancy).
A gestational diabetes does not cause any direct complaints, so basically there is a risk that he will be treated too late or not. but therapy is needed because of diabetes can adversely affect the unborn child. Therefore shall all pregnant women as part of the prenatal care the blood sugar controlled. At increased risk of a woman doctor oral Glucose tolerance test recommend to make a gestational can be treated timely identification and protection of mother and child.
A gestational diabetes can by a increased insulin requirements or one increasing insulin resistance of pregnant women arise:
With the progress of pregnancy, the expectant mother needs more energy. In order to make these available to the body increases glucose is released. The pancreas (pancreas) must produce more insulin to deliver glucose to the cells and reduce the concentration of sugar in the blood (blood sugar levels).
For some pregnant women, the pancreas can not afford and do not meet the increased need for insulin, so that there is a lack of insulin, this extra work. In this case it is called a genuine insulin deficiency.
In the first trimester of pregnancy (first trimester) are also paid certain hormones increases (including HCG), which ensure that the cells more sensitive to insulin stimulation. In the second and especially in the third portion of the pregnancy (2nd and 3rd trimester), however, the composition of the distributed hormones and the cell change develop an increasing insulin resistance. Blood sugar levels can not be lowered then despite sufficient existing insulin. then one speaks of a relative insulin deficiency.
In most cases, the female body comes with the changing demands cope during pregnancy. But there are some factors that increase the risk of gestational diabetes.
Risk factors for gestational diabetes:
A gestational diabetes causes usually no noticeable symptoms. but he expresses himself by a too high blood sugar levels in the expectant mother, which can be found as part of a glucose tolerance test.
Possible signs of gestational diabetes
The scans as part of prenatal care can potentially a overgrowth respectively to heavy weight of the fetus be determined - this may be a sign be a gestational diabetes.
If available, for example due to diabetes, too little carbohydrates as an energy supplier, the body begins to break down the fat reserves. be called fat loss Ketones or ketone bodies free - safe under normal circumstances, to a small extent and. but is due to lack of glucose in a short time requires a lot of energy from fat stores, too many ketones are released.
There are three different ketone bodies:
excess acetone is exhaled. The breath then smells spicy, similar to nail polish remover. acetoacetate and Beta-hydroxybutyrate but accumulate in the body and move the pH in the acidic range (acidosis), which in turn affects the metabolic processes in the body. If left untreated, it can called ketoacidosis, So hyperacidity due to ketone bodies to a diabetic coma to lead.
Signs of ketoacidosis may include:
In the course of gestational diabetes you should check both the blood sugar and ketones regularly. About special test strips can they Ketones in the urine be detected.
Increased ketone body levels you should definitely check with the doctor. He will make a plan with you to correct values as you increased.
In order to recognize a pregnancy diabetes in time, each pregnant woman who does not have a diagnosed diabetes between the 25th week of pregnancy and 28 weeks of gestation entitled to a so-called screening and if necessary on a glucose tolerance test.
Both tests are covered by public health insurance.
If a gestational diabetes found, it may be sufficient if the expectant mother her Nutrition during pregnancy surrounded and moves more, for example by frequent walks in the fresh air, pregnancy gymnastics, water aerobics for pregnant women and the like.
Less common it is necessary, until the end of pregnancy insulin to administer. The pregnant woman may itself determine the blood glucose level in this case and inject insulin. It should be especially careful in the third trimester offered: During this time, all pregnant women Insulin action increases. the pregnant woman is injected now too much insulin, it can order a Blood sugar (hypoglycaemia) cause. The insulin dose and measuring blood glucose levels should always take place in close consultation with the gynecologist. Pregnant women should also always have something to the increase blood sugar levels quickly to (e.g., glucose).
With the appropriate insulin therapy or by using a diet gestational diabetes can be treated fairly. However, if he does not or detected too late, it can cause a number of complications, especially for the baby.
There is a gestational diabetes, the doctor in the last trimester of pregnancy leads increased by ultrasound to detect an excessive growth of the baby and can if necessary initiate the birth of premature or perform a caesarean section.
Also an untreated gestational diabetes has not necessarily a negative impact. However, the risk increases for a number of complications.
Complications for pregnant women in the course of an untreated gestational diabetes can be:
But an untreated or treated too late gestational diabetes can also Effects on the unborn child to have:
A gestational diabetes (gestational diabetes), you can prevent by avoiding risk factors such as obesity and poor diet already in case of infertility, but no later than during pregnancy.
also take the glucose test 25 to 28 weeks gestation with your gynecologist to complete.