Prostate cancer (prostate cancer)
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Prostate cancer (prostate cancer) in Germany is by far the most common cancer in men. If prostate cancer detected at an early, treatable stage, there is a good chance of recovery. It often occurs at an advanced stage to complaints, although not clearly speak for prostate cancer, but can also occur in other diseases.
A malignant tumor of the prostate (prostate) indicate physicians as prostate cancer (prostate cancer). He is the most common cancer in men in Germany and makes about a quarter of all cancers in men emerging annually from. In Germany it came in 2012 to about 63,700 new cases. The mean age for prostate cancer is 70 years. Before age 50, prostate cancer rarely occurs.
The incidence of prostate cancer increases steadily for nearly three decades. This is mainly due to the use of new methods for early detection (for example, PSA testing) due to be discovered by the more prostate cancers, especially in the early stages.
The prostate gland (prostate) is about as large as a chestnut and is below the bladder. It encloses the initial portion of the urethra which transports urine from the bladder through the penis to the opening at the tip of the glans. This also explains the relationship why many people with prostate problems have painful urination explained. Since the prostate before the rectum (Rectum, a part of the rectum) is located, a physician may scan the prostate gland through the intestinal wall therethrough, inserting a Fimger in the anus. This study is important for the early detection of prostate cancer and the common check-up.
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The prostate is one of the sexual organs of the man.
In their breast tissue, the prostate produces a special secretions, which constitutes an important constituent of seminal fluid and stimulates sperm motility. Prostate cancer forms in most cases in this very glandular tissue. In addition, by pulling muscle tissue, which provides for the expulsion of the secretion, and connective tissue, the prostate.
Many of those affected with prostate cancer go undetected - and without complaints. Studies show that about 30 percent of men over 50 years, a so-called dumb prostate cancer carry within them, which usually no discomfort. This type of prostate cancer requires no treatment usually.
Since typical symptoms are absent, the early detection of prostate cancer plays a key role and is the basis for successful therapy. In Germany, every man from 45 years entitled to the services offered by the public health insurance annual early detection tests: They help to discover a possibly vorliegendes prostate cancer in time and can be treated successfully.
The insidious thing about prostate cancer is that symptoms appear very late. As long as he is still small, it causes usually no symptoms. So there are no warning signs. Therefore, prostate cancer can be detected at the beginning only in the context of early detection examinations. The cancer is palpable as a tumor during scanning of the prostate through the rectum, it is usually already advanced. Even in this time have any symptoms are usually. but have already metastases (so-called secondary tumors or metastases.) - for example in the bones - formed, sufferers often have pain.
The symptoms of prostate cancer occur relatively late and are often very characteristic. Possible symptoms:
These complaints may as benign prostatic hyperplasia occur and are not unique prostate cancer symptoms in other diseases. Only about one in ten men with these symptoms actually prostate cancer.
already are secondary tumors found in the bones, can also be symptoms such as severe pain in the lower back, hips or legs occur in prostate cancer.
The exact causes that lead to prostate cancer (prostate cancer) are not yet fully understood. However, a major risk factor for prostate cancer (prostate cancer) is certainly the Older. From the age of 50 the likelihood of developing a tumor of the prostate increases, strong. More than 80 percent of men with prostate cancer are older than 60 years.
Besides, is well established that the risk of developing prostate cancer, inherited can be. are father or Brother ill with prostate cancer, doubled to get prostate cancer itself is a risk. Men with genetic predisposition also diagnosed at a younger age than the average of prostate cancer. Thus, it is recommended to these men, early urological examinations to claim something. are estimated to genetic factors at about five to ten percent of cases of prostate cancer the cause.
Also hormones in prostate cancer are possible causes - especially the male sex hormone testosterone. Without testosterone no prostate cancer can develop. May also contain additional hormones are eligible as prostate cancer causes.
To what extent lifestyle and diet influence the onset of prostate cancer is not fully understood. So far there is no clear evidence that individual foods, food ingredients and vitamins to increase or decrease the risk of prostate cancer. Therefore, doctors advise to an overall healthy lifestyle with plenty of exercise in the fresh air and a healthy diet low in fat and meat, instead, lots of vegetables, fruit and fiber.
Whether the frequently occurring at an advanced age, benign enlargement of the prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia, BPH) comes as prostate cancer cause in question is also not fully understood.
After prostate cancer diagnosis, the doctor determines how far the tumor has been expanding in the prostate. Procedures that can determine the doctor whether the prostate cancer has formed secondary tumors, are for example:
With the results of these tests, the doctor can plan the treatment better. An indication, if metastases - whether the tumor has already spread so - are the PSA level. If it is below 10 ng / ml, this is rarely the case and there are no further investigation procedures necessary.
After the diagnosis, it is also important to note what kind tumor is and how far it has spread. After that, the therapy depends. To designate the tumor stages, the so-called international TNM classification used. Three features of prostate cancer are in it for staging (called staging.) Important:
Another Degree classification according to the Prostate Cancer Diagnosis is the so-called Gleason score. It was developed by the American doctor Donald Gleason and is important for therapeutic decisions and prognosis of prostate cancer. The Gleason score describes how different the cancer cells from normal, healthy cells. This gives an indication of how fast and aggressive prostate cancer grows. The samples taken in the tissue sample cells are divided into five different groups (1-5) their appearance:
In the course of the disease is important, the value achieved most samples. Individually elevated levels play a lesser role. Therefore, the two scores of the most abundant cells are added together in the Gleason score. This score is then at least two and a maximum of 10. It is 10 the worst value because it points to very malignant cells.
The range of possible treatment is big. The appropriate in individual cases, therapy is aimed primarily on how far the cancer progressed already is and how old the person is.
In principle, the following treatment options available for prostate cancer:
The Prostate Cancer Aftercare aims to identify as early as possible if the Disease recurs (So-called. Recurrence) and treat again, if necessary. The attending physician can also treat may have occurred side effects and consequences of surgery or radiation. Attention must be psychological and social aspects of prostate cancer, which can burden the patient strong.
As a rule, follow-up visits take place every three months for the first two years. After that, only rare follow-ups are needed: in the third and fourth year semi-annually, annually from the fifth year. As part of the investigation will continue and the PSA level certainly. These appointments should take victims on time. In addition, it is advisable to pay attention to exercise and a healthy diet as they positively influence the disease and the rest.
Prostate cancer can not be sure prevention. But there are a few behavioral measures that reduce the risk of prostate cancer and recurrence after recovering from illness: Regular physical exercise, a normal body weight and a healthy diet (lots of fruits and vegetables, less animal fat) have proven a positive effect and therefore play an important role.
Early detection tests may prostate cancer in the true sense not prevent, but they can help diagnose existing prostate cancer early. This is important because the chances of cure are very good at prostate cancer, if detected and treated early. With Screening for early detection of prostate cancer the doctor can already detect the disease before the first symptoms appear. In Germany, every man has aged 45 and over are legally entitled to an annual examination of the external genitalia of the man and the prostate including a rectal palpation.
Cancer advice and help near the German Cancer Society and its subsidiaries have established a network of psychosocial counseling centers in Germany, find extensive advice and assistance to the patient and interested. The list of local counseling centers can be found here.
Patient Guide prostate cancer (PDF) Patient Guide the German Cancer Society and the German Cancer Aid