Down syndrome (trisomy 21): Symptoms

21 October 2017

Those with Down syndrome (trisomy 21) associated symptoms are individually very differently pronounced. In any case, the congenital disorder affects both the physical Development and organ functions as well as the intellectual Abilities. Some effects are already clearly seen at birth, while others only come to light in the course of further development.

Individual symptoms of Down syndrome can occur without trisomy 21 in humans. In your combination are the signs but characteristic for Down syndrome.

Already in newborn children trisomy 21 is outwardly noticeable, because they changed the look a certain way. Accordingly, all children with Down syndrome have many physical characteristics together - typically are:

A newborn, in which some of the typical Down syndrome symptoms are recognizable. © iStock

In newborn babies with Down syndrome are some typical symptoms are already clearly visible.

It used to be called the Down syndrome - because of the visible symptoms of trisomy 21 - as Mongolismus. However, the term is now considered discriminatory and is therefore no longer used.

Additional possible Down syndrome other physical symptoms common: for example, is typical muscle weakness (hypotension), which is particularly noticeable in babies. Many children with Trisomy 21 have congenital heart disease, and changes in the gastrointestinal tract, such as:

Furthermore, associated Down's syndrome with various problems to the eyes. Examples of diseases or eye abnormalities in trisomy 21 are:

People with Down syndrome are more susceptible to infectious diseases, especially in childhood - for example, respiratory infections and middle ear infections that can lead to hearing loss. In some cases, trisomy 21 is also associated with congenital thyroid disorders. With age also the risk of leukemia and Alzheimer's increases.

their mental faculties have people with Down syndrome typically a specific template to: Most have a fairly well-developed social skills and visual perception, but falter when verbal communication. The extent to which the Trisomy 21 affects the mental ability, but is extremely different: While some sufferers are almost average intelligence, others have severe mental retardation.

Overall, children with Down syndrome develop delayed - Symptoms of this show next to the language development even in motor development. However, most children with trisomy 21 their everyday skills and reading and writing by special promotion learn and become more independent.

Puberty sets in both sexes one also often delayed. Men with Down syndrome make too little sperm and are almost always permanently sterile. however, most women can become pregnant despite trisomy 21 and have children.

Despite common physical and mental disorders do not develop all people with Down syndrome symptoms are the same - some features may be missing or completely attenuated. For example, if a mosaic trisomy 21 is behind the syndrome, the symptoms are rather less pronounced - if only a few cells contain a supernumerary chromosome 21 in particular.


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