Kidney Stones: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
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Facts about kidney stones
Kidney stones form in the kidney and in the urinary tract.
Kidney stones can be depending on the composition in various types of stone divided:
Whether and what symptoms depends on the Size and location the kidney stones from. Small kidney stones can unnoticed migrate into the bladder through the urethra and get outside to urinate.
however, larger kidney stones can touch the wall of the ureter and get stuck even in it. That can severe cramping or labor-like, stabbing pain (So-called. Ureteric colic) cause. They usually start in the flank and radiate into the lower abdomen along the ureter.
Deep-seated kidney stones can even up to the genitals trigger (scrotum or labia) radiating pain. While the stone is moving slowly through the urinary tract, travels with him often the pain.
If a kidney stone violates the ureteral wall, it can also bleeding come. If the stone into the bladder and then into the urethra through, is often so much blood in the urine that can be seen with the naked eye (so-called. gross hematuria).
Exceed certain substances in the urine a certain concentration, they become solid crystals. If accumulate over time onionskin-like ever new layers to the crystals that are formed kidney stones. Among the substances that make up kidney stones can form include:
When man receives with eating and drinking too little fluid, his kidneys may produce little urine. The water content of the urine decreases and the concentration of certain substances in the urine increases. Also, the loss of fluid through sweat (e.g., in hot air), or diarrhea (watery stool) increases the risk of kidney stones.
If you eat a lot of salt, gets more calcium and less citrate in the urine. Therefore, increases a salt diet the risk of calcium-containing kidney stones. This can occur naturally when excessive amounts calcium-rich foods consumes. These include milk, cheese and other dairy products.
A permanently to proteinaceous food (Lots of meat and sausage products, especially organ meats) leads to an oversupply of certain substances in the blood (known. Purines) which the body breaks down into uric acid and thus eliminated in the urine. Increases in uric acid levels in the urine over a certain value, uric acid stones may form.
High levels of calcium and phosphate in blood on one of the parathyroid gland (hyperparathyroidism) can be traced back sometimes.
On Excess of oxalic acid is sometimes result of primary hyperoxaluria, a congenital disorder enzyme. The oxalic acid content in urine can increase ulcerosa (chronic inflammation of the colon) or Crohn's disease also because of inflammatory bowel disease such as colitis. Then doctors speak of a secondary hyperoxaluria.
A high concentration of uric acid in urine depends sometimes with diabetes. Why, is not yet clearly understood.
People who move little, often have an increased risk of kidney stones. one is about due to a serious illness for a long time bedridden, the body not only builds muscle but also calcium from from bones. As a result, the concentration of calcium in the urine increases and may form kidney stones.
If the patient on labor-like pain in the flanks complains, the doctor will pull kidney stones as a possible cause. In order to make a diagnosis, he kidneys but have to look at first. For this he can be a ultrasound make. If the results are inconclusive, it can also CT scans make of the kidney.
In addition, the doctor examines the urine of the patient. He can, for example, find whether the patient has an infection or whether its calcium or uric acid levels are elevated.
Small kidney stones with a diameter of 5 millimeters Patients divorce usually made within a month of its own. Treatment is then not necessary. However, sometimes it causes pain when a kidney stone moves through the ureter (known. Acute Harnleiterkolik). In this case, the doctor may antiinflammatory Painkillers such as diclofenac prescribe.
If the stones more than one centimeter in size are or cause severe discomfort, they should away become. Advisable that's especially true if:
Only uric acid stones can sometimes using drugs dissolve. The patient should then drink plenty of fluids to help the kidneys produce more urine, in which uric acid can dissolve.
Other types of kidney stones can not eliminate drug itself. To remove them, the doctor may either destroy or remove surgically.
To crush kidney stones, no surgery needed. The doctor can kidney stones by using the so-called extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) smash from the outside. For this he uses a probe to the skin, which transmits sound waves through the skin to the kidney. The sound waves shatter the kidney stones into small pieces. These separate the kidney then of course with the urine out.
During pregnancy or an untreated urinary tract infection, this therapy should not be used.
Kidney stones with a diameter of 2 centimeters or more not enough shock wave treatment. The fragments resulting were still too large to be excreted by the kidneys.
Large kidney stones must be removed mostly. However, open surgery only rarely used today. Usually doctors use the following endoscopic procedures:
As a rule, it makes sense, larger kidney stones, which does not separate the body by itself to let remove. This is urgently needed if the stones close the urinary tract. Because then there is the Risk that bacteria immigrate cause and infections of the urinary tract and kidneys.
developed more than half of the patients repeated Kidney stones. With specific measures, however, can frequently prevent.
Kidney stones are formed when the urine contains so large amounts of certain substances that they do not dissolve. By drinking a lot (at least 2.5 liters of unsweetened liquid a day), you can dilute the urine and thus reduce the risk of kidney stones.
Soft drinks such as cola, however, are not recommended because they contain phosphoric acid (usually referred to as additive E338). Doctors suspect that phosphoric acid promotes the formation of kidney stones.
Moreover, one can prevent a targeted individual types of kidney stones. As some of the stone-forming substances found in various foods, it is possible, their concentration in the urine over a regulated nutrition to lower: