Diabetes mellitus (diabetes) – when blood sugar is too high
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are considered typical symptoms of diabetes:
Intense thirst is a typical symptom of yet undiscovered diabetes.
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In type 2 diabetes, the cause lies in the development of insulin resistance: Although insulin binds to the receptor, the cell does not respond.
Thus glucose can be funneled from the blood into the cells, insulin must first dock to the receptor.
On suspicion of diabetes mellitus (diabetes), the doctor can make a diagnosis based on blood glucose levels. The concentration of sugar in the urine can also give an indication.
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A urine test can help in cases of suspected diabetes diagnosis.
If the doctor at the first tests blood glucose levels found lying in the border area, it may additionally include a oral glucose tolerance test make (OGTT). During OGTT the doctor takes the person concerned first blood off to determine blood sugar levels.
arrive at therapy level 4 further adjusted Insulin and combination therapies are used, which can be useful in some diabetics.
improving agents from the group of biguanides glucose utilization in the cells, for example in muscle. In addition, they inhibit the body's production of glucose from other metabolites such proteins. A known representative of the biguanide is the metformin. In obese type 2 diabetics metformin is the drug of first choice. People with severe kidney disease should not take biguanides.
If diabetics are taking sulfonylureas, they have a regular diet eighth, as without carbs dangerous hypoglycemia (so-called. hypoglycemia) can occur. Affected with type 2 diabetes and renal insufficiency have also sulfonylureas generally an increased risk of hypoglycemia. For them, drugs should be prescribed in this drug class with caution.
prevent alpha-glucosidase inhibitors such as acarbose and miglitol agents that glucose is broken down in the intestine and absorbed into the blood. Both drugs delay the glucose absorption in the intestine and prevent the sharp rise in blood sugar levels after meals. They can be combined with many other diabetes agents. However, they may not be suitable for patients with type 2 diabetes and renal insufficiency.
Exenatide and liraglutide are drugs that mimic the action of incretin. They are therefore also called incretin mimetics. Another name for this drug class is GLP-1 receptor agonists. Incretin mimetics increase the secretion of insulin and inhibit both glucagon secretion, a hormone that can increase blood sugar levels.
In conventional insulin therapy of diabetics injected short-acting insulin and long-acting basal insulin in a fixed mixing ratio is about twice daily. Advantage of this method: the ease of use. One disadvantage is the rigid effect that forces the diabetic to keep in his daily routine and in quantity and time of his meals at a fixed procedure.
Insulin can be using special insulin (Subcutaneously) to inject under the skin. It is füllhalterähnliche injection devices containing insulin in prefabricated cartridges. By pressing a button you can so the desired dose of insulin to inject.
A continuous supply of insulin, however, is only using a so-called insulin Pump possible. These filled with insulin dosing are about the size of a cigarette pack, and be worn on the body. The insulin pump via a cannula beneath the skin on a regular basis from a certain preset amount of insulin. In addition, it allows you to retrieve an extra dose of insulin before meals (bolus).
While there are devices that combined measure blood sugar levels and can administer insulin. Until now, but you have to be dispensed amount of insulin still calculated on the amount of carbohydrates eaten, and will also measure blood sugar by hand.
In early 2006 a Insulin for inhalation approved in Germany for certain diabetics. the patients were on an inhaler - similar to an asthma spray - inhale the insulin. About the bronchial it came very quickly into the blood. The manufacturer took the drug but in 2007 from the market. Whether inhalable insulin in Germany is available again at some point, is still unclear.
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A comprehensive diabetes training is very important for any sufferers. It gives important information about diabetes mellitus and its treatment. So every diabetic should learn
Training for diabetics are offered by numerous sites, the costs takes over the health insurance company. doctors, diabetes outpatient clinics, support groups and diabetes specialist practices can inform themselves about the different courses.
Possible warning sign of hypoglycemia include:
On suspicion of hypoglycaemia you should check their blood sugar and if necessary quickly usable carbohydrates take (for example, dextrose, fruit juice, sugary colas or sodas) to himself.
More on the subject: First aid for hypoglycemia
Regular doctor visits are especially important for those affected with diabetes mellitus. With the doctor can discuss all issues related to the therapy and the disease and clear confusion out of the way. At each appointment, the doctor checked mass, blood pressure and blood sugar.
At regular intervals, it also measures the so-called HbA1c, by means of which they can assess the blood glucose levels of the last eight to ten weeks. He also analyzed the blood lipid levels.
Diabetics should also pay particular attention to their feet and this control preferably daily. Bruises, skin cracks, blisters or other injuries to the feet can not be taken for diabetes lightly. Because even minor injuries may indicate an incipient diabetic foot. Even small injuries should Affected therefore show the doctor. A gentle and regular foot care and wear comfortable shoes for diabetes for healthy feet.
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In order not to miss any of the important dates, diabetics can all doctor visits in the Health Pass Diabetes Enter the German Diabetes Association (DDG). It is available to the doctor or the DDG. The findings and blood glucose levels be registered there. So they do not get lost and are always available.
It is important that the supplied with food calories can also be utilized by the body and carbohydrates are excreted in the urine is not easy. Several small meals (five or six) per day are better than a few large ones. For in this way subject to the insulin requirement lower daily fluctuations.
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People with diabetes can improve their health by using a healthy diet.
Especially for people with type 2 diabetes is sport (in addition to a healthy diet) a good way active to do something about the diabetes. Physical activity increases energy consumption, the cell makes more sensitive to insulin and thus lowering blood sugar. It is important that you move regularly and over a certain time (min. three times a week for 30 minutes). To lose weight, sport is essential. In general: Every kilo overweight, which can decreases, improves blood sugar, slows the diabetes and prevent long-term damage.
However, you should take it slow with the physical activity. Anyone who has diabetes and normally drives rather little sport, but then suddenly seeking peak physical stress, can even harm his blood sugar control rather than good. Under certain circumstances, the overall metabolism may derail. It is best to discuss with your doctor so that sporting activities and which exercise intensity are healthy for you.
If you inject insulin or take so-called sulfonylureas, you have a certain risk of hypoglycaemia (hypoglycemia) during exercise may. In exercise of shorter duration, you can hypoglycemia with a Snack prevent. In case of persistent efforts, you must also adjust the dose of insulin. Athletes with diabetes know by many measurements and experience the reaction of her body to loads usually very accurate. You can control well their sugar metabolism even under extreme conditions.
More on the subject: Diabetes and Sport
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Children with diabetes need a lot of attention.
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Most diabetics can easily have a job.
Whether diarrhea, fever or cold - if affected with diabetes mellitus are sick, is a Careful blood glucose control particularly important. Because in diseases of the metabolism out of balance can get. To avoid this, you should follow some tips in case of illness:
www.bund-diabetischer-kinder.de federal diabetic children and adolescents
www.diabetes-news.de Current news, support groups in Baden-Wuerttemberg, specialists, extensive information collection
www.diabetes-kids.de Virtual support group and exchange forum for children with diabetes and their parents
www.diabetesDE.org diabetesDE unites all people with diabetes and all professional groups such as doctors, nurse and researchers to advocate for better prevention, care and research in the fight against diabetes.
www.diabsite.de Independent diabetes portal with key issues such as "Children with diabetes". "Diabetes and Sport" and "Diabetes traveling"
www.deutsche-diabetes-gesellschaft.de German Diabetes Society
www.diabetesstiftung.de German Diabetes Foundation