High blood pressure (hypertension, high blood pressure) – an endemic disease
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High blood pressure (hypertension, high blood pressure) is a widespread disease: Some 30 percent of Germans are concerned - often without knowing it. The reason: It may take a long time to high blood pressure causes symptoms. Nevertheless, a high blood pressure damages the body. The good news: Anyone can do a lot to lower his blood pressure and thus prevent diseases!
Hypertension is, by definition, if the values at least 140 to 90 mmHg be.
High blood pressure (hypertension, high blood pressure) can cause many different causes to have. Depending on what is this, a distinction two forms hypertension: primary and secondary.
high blood pressure without direct identifiable cause occurs more frequently with age. However, the essential hypertension can also occur in young people.
Responsible for causing this form of hypertension are mainly the heredity and personal lifestyle. The major risk factors are:
high blood pressure With direct identifiable causes - ie a secondary hypertension - can, for example, by the following drugs arise:
In addition to medication can also other substances cause high blood pressure. As a secondary to high blood pressure can occur, for example, by drugs or toxic substances. Moreover, excessive consumption of licorice can drive blood pressure up.
To the diseases, which may be directly responsible for high blood pressure include certain vascular, renal or metabolic diseases. Possible causes of a disease-related secondary hypertension include:
Video Renal Hypertension: High blood pressure due to kidney damage
Also snoring and long pauses in breathing during the night with subsequent daytime sleepiness (sleep apnea) can cause a secondary hypertension.
In addition, asthmatics often have elevated blood pressure values. In the case but the asthma itself is not necessarily to blame for the high blood pressure. the drugs used (corticosteroids and beta-sympathomimetics) are instead believed to be the causes of hypertension.
Often, hypertension occurs in pregnancy: About 15 percent of all pregnant women develop a secondary hypertension. Zuden risk factors for gestational high blood pressure include older age of the mother (>40 years) and multiple pregnancies.
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One common special form high blood pressure is the isolated clinical hypertension (also White coat hypertension called): This measured by the doctor blood pressure values than those that have been measured at home even lie. The reason for this might be the tension that some people feel when entering a doctor's office and talking to the doctor or practice staff and drives blood pressure up.
To a high blood pressure (hypertension, high blood pressure) Symptoms triggers, some time may pass: It often takes Years to decades, until the first symptoms of hypertension occur. Therefore, many sufferers do not even know that their blood pressure is too high.
However, this carries risks because: In the long run, a high blood pressure without symptoms in the body can cause damage! In the long term hypertension heart, blood vessels, brain, eyes and kidneys can damage. This damage in turn can drag complications such as heart attack or stroke by themselves.
Through early intervention such consequential damage of high blood pressure but are preventable. Therefore, it is important to watch for signs behind which possibly a plugged to high blood pressure - possible symptoms these are for example:
The symptoms of organ damage occurring by high blood pressure can be very different. Among the possible Signs of organ damage due to hypertension include:
Join existing hypertension symptoms similar to a stroke (i.e., dizziness, blurred vision, paralysis, loss of consciousness), this may be a so-called hypertensive emergency point: This emergency hypertension organs threatens to damage (such as the brain, the eyes or the heart). A hypertensive emergency is characterized in that the blood pressure values are greatly increased - usually about 230 to 130 millimeters of mercury (mmHg).
When a hypertensive emergency occur with high blood pressure symptoms, the following applies: emergency doctor call (112), the affected soothe turn and further stress from him! People with hypertensive emergency must be immediate medical attention and then to the hospital, because: Such a high blood pressure can temporarily dangerous werden.Um to lower blood pressure in such a situation quickly, for example, the active nitroglycerin, urapidil and nifedipine are suitable.
As Hypertensive crisis (Or hypertensive crisis) call doctors, however, a state in which, although there is a very high blood pressure, but there are no complaints, despite the rise in blood pressure: Then there is usually no acute risk to organ damage. In a hypertensive crisis, it is - in contrast to hypertensive emergency - Not necessary to reduce blood pressure immediately by medication. Nevertheless it is advisable not to play down suddenly sharp rise in blood pressure, but to check whether they promptly either through a short-term appointment with the doctor or the nearest hospital.
In order to diagnose high blood pressure, it is necessary to measure blood pressure several times: A high blood pressure is considered confirmed when a out at least two measurements on two different days elevated blood pressure values is (higher than 140/90 mmHg).
But Danger: If someone comes jaded in the doctor's office or excited during doctor visits, blood pressure monitor, a adulterated show result. To determine sure if you have high blood pressure, it is therefore important in front Blood pressure measurement at least five minutes to calm down - as in a chair or on a treatment couch. In the first measurement, it is advisable to measure blood pressure in both arms and legs, in order to exclude changes in the vessels (such as a narrowing of the aorta).
To determine a hypertension, besides there is the possibility the blood pressure of a patient 24-hour measurement, a load measurement (Ergometry) and through the self-measurement to check.
In hypertensive plays Blood pressure self-measurement an important role - not only for diagnosis, but also in the subsequent treatment. Recommended are devices that blood pressure to on the upper arm Measuring. It should be ensured that the blood pressure monitor the Official accuracy criteria (Such as seal of the German Hypertension League) met. The size of the blood pressure cuff should be determined by the circumference of the upper arm. If too small a cuff used comes with thicker arms, the actual blood pressure may be lower than the measured.
For all people with high blood pressure, it is advisable to measure their blood pressure twice a day even at rest and the blood pressure values in a Blood pressure pass entered.
Did the blood pressure through treatment stabilized or normalized, suffice rarer blood pressure measurements from (for example, once a week two measurements in the evening and two in the morning). The values determined in blood pressure self-measurement should not exceed 135 to 85 millimeters of mercury (mmHg).
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To the cause of the high blood pressure to get to the bottom and set the appropriate treatment, the doctor informs in the so-called history's medical history and the exact circumstances and habits. So it is important, for example, to clarify the following questions:
Then come complementary tests are used because: Modern hypertension diagnosis depends - how the treatment - not only according to blood pressure response. It also takes into account the risk factors for cardiovascular disease, existing organ damage and concomitant diseases. Risk factors include, in particular:
In a blood test, the physician therefore determined fats (lipids) and sugar (glucose) in the blood, further minerals such as potassium and the kidney function (creatinine). Since the kidney can be damaged by high blood pressure or is possibly impaired in an accompanying diabetes mellitus already in their function, we recommend a urine test.
additionally The following tests may be useful to detect organ changes have already occurred and to determine the cause of secondary hypertension high blood pressure:
High blood pressure (hypertension, high blood pressure) is a early treatment advisable: For who lowers his blood pressure enough and long term, promotes his health and conserves be active cardiovascular system. This can prevent future organ damage and complications such as heart attack and stroke! So, it pays to start early treatment!
Which means are appropriate to reduce blood pressure, is individual. The therapy is based on mainly general measures - as stress reduction or a change in lifestyle. Additional possible for hypertension often antihypertensive drugs for use.
Is the direct cause of high blood pressure known (so-called. Secondary hypertension), the treatment is directed by the respective timer.
High blood pressure is a healthy lifestyle - including healthy diet, plenty of exercise and anti-stress measures - indispensable foundation therapy. For these general measures of hypertension is not only safe and effective prevent, but also
Is your blood pressure increased only slightly (so-called. Hypertension grade 1), It can be used to treat be enough to change your lifestyle: This can reduce as far a not too strong hypertension often that one without medication gets along!
And even with stronger and drug-treated hypertension a change in lifestyle can lower blood pressure reduce further, so there are good opportunities that you can reduce the dose of the medication. This in turn means that you have fewer side effects and better tolerate the drugs.
If high blood pressure occurs more frequently in your family, but they are (still) not affected, you can use a healthy lifestyle also an occurrence of hypertension delay.
It is worth it you have to keep in any case, high blood pressure to a healthy lifestyle! This means above all that you:
Proper nutrition can make a difference in hypertension. In the diet hypertensives should mainly due to the Supply of saline respect, think highly of. Most people in Germany take daily about 12 to 15 grams of salt to what clearly too much is.
Every other people with high blood pressure, a low-salt diet lowers blood pressure by about 10 to 15 millimeters of mercury (mmHg). These people are considered sensitive to salt. They reduce the amount of sodium chloride even further - to about 3 grams of salt per day - this even leads to a marked reduction in blood pressure.
In addition, it generally helps to treat high blood pressure, switch the diet. is recommended for hypertension fresh, low-salt and individually prepared food. Finished products and many meat and cheese products are often stronger salted and therefore to avoid better if the blood pressure is too high.
Instead, high blood pressure hypotensive food recommended: Who, for example, a lot of fruits and vegetables takes with himself, can naturally lower his blood pressure. Also through Polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish and plant oils can be a sink to high blood pressure - as well as the cholesterol: Cholesterol is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease.
Hypertension sufficient physical activity is also recommended. Sport and exercise affect several times positive:
All people with hypertension will benefit from a regular physical training - especially those who have previously not or only insufficiently athletic operated. A training frequency of about 30 minutes three days a week is at least necessary to achieve a blood pressure lowering effect. The amount of exercise is individual. However, any sport for the treatment of high blood pressure is not suitable - are particularly recommended Endurance sports as:
Force and high-performance sports are high blood pressure, however Not recommended.
In addition, it is recommended for high blood pressure, reduce obesity. Anyone who has a few pounds too much on the ribs and slightly decreases, does his blood pressure a favor: Pro lost kilograms blood pressure falls by an average of two millimeters of mercury (mmHg). Especially if occurs frequently in your family hypertension, it is important to counteract obesity time. Children whose high blood pressure is related to obesity, achieved through regular exercise and healthy eating often more than by drugs.
High blood pressure, the proper use of alcohol and smoking has a positive effect. That is why it is recommended for people with hypertension, severely restrict the consumption of alcohol or best not to give up alcohol. In general:
In addition, applies in general and high blood pressure: If you want to prevent cardiovascular, respiratory and cancer diseases, should refrain from smoking - even if these include the cigarettes for many people to live.
For the treatment of hypertension and stress reduction can help: Who can cope well with stress professionally and personally, influenced his hypertension favorable. You can lower your blood pressure with additional relaxation techniques (for example, progressive muscle relaxation, autogenous training or breathing exercises) - this is especially true if your high blood pressure is partly due to psychological factors.
In order to reduce high blood pressure, antihypertensive drugs (so-called. Blood pressure medicines) are often indispensable. It is not always from general measures alone are to lower elevated blood pressure adequately and permanently.
High blood pressure are antihypertensive agents from different drug classes. All these blood pressure medicines help similarly well against hypertension - both at baseline and over time.
However, you get high blood pressure a customized therapy: For the individual drugs have different effects, side effects and interactions. Therefore any antihypertensive agents for each is equally suitable or tolerated. To the standard drugs count against hypertension:
High blood pressure (hypertension, high blood pressure) usually proceeds for years free of symptoms until decades. However, increases with the level of blood pressure values likely to develop a secondary disease. The forecast therefore depends heavily on a early treatment from.
hypertension consists untreated on, it can cause harm to the remainder of the heart, blood vessels, brain, eyes and kidneys. Without treatment is therefore to be expected that the hypertension severe consequences Has. Many sufferers die from complications that brings a high blood pressure in the long run with it:
Untreated or inadequately treated hypertension can various complications cause. the cardiovascular system, the cerebral circulation and the kidneys are affected in the first place. In addition, other diseases such as diabetes mellitus (diabetes) often occur in combination with hypertension.
often caused complications in the cardiovascular system that a high blood pressure, is that a high blood pressure a constant pressure load in the cardiovascular system means. Thus, the left ventricle, which can lead to heart failure (heart failure) increases.
In addition, high blood pressure promotes the hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) in the coronary arteries and other body regions. Thus high blood pressure is a risk factor for coronary heart disease in which the coronary arteries are narrowed. Atherosclerosis can lead in the legs to circulatory disorders. Other possible consequences of hypertension angina or a heart attack.
High blood pressure also means an increased risk of a so-called aortic aneurysm: Here, the main artery expands and can crack in the course, which leads to a life-threatening bleeding.
High blood pressure is also frequently affected by complications the brain, because: High blood pressure is the biggest risk factor for stroke. Up to 70 percent of all strokes in people over the age of 65 years, occur as a result of hypertension.
The possible high blood pressure complications of kidney range from kidney disease (atrophic kidney) to the kidney failure (renal failure). High blood pressure is the most common cause of a leading border chronic renal failure: High blood pressure damages the small vessels in the kidney, so that functional kidney areas die. The overall function of the kidney decreases - to acute renal failure. Kidney damage caused by hypertension are the third most common reason people requiring dialysis (hemodialysis).
If you prevent a high blood pressure (hypertension, high blood pressure) or to reduce already elevated blood pressure values, the good news: High blood pressure much of what you can do yourself to help. Thus, the change in lifestyle can significantly help to make your blood pressure goes down again - or that the blood pressure not only becomes too high.
Hypertension Risk Test
Hypertension often goes unnoticed for a long time. Over time, however, it can damage the health. What is your personal high blood pressure risk? Find out with our high blood pressure risk test! To the test ...
With regular exercise, healthy diet, stress reduction and a normal weight, you can do something good for your blood pressure and keep the values permanently in the normal range.
German Hypertension e.V. (DHL)
Diverse professional and patient information provides the DHL, among others the guidelines for the treatment of hypertension, patient referrals, scheduling information on doctor-patient seminars and a list of nationwide Support Groups