Asperger syndrome: mild form of autism
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People with Asperger syndrome find it hard Relationships with others build. They show far fewer facial expressions and gestures than other people and rarely take eye contact.
Also, if it acts to outsiders: people with Asperger syndrome want to live not necessarily remote - but they are not able assess social situations and signals and to behave accordingly, empowering them to start difficult relationships. However, they have little pleasure to share their interests with others. Asperger's sufferers can not empathize with other people. The emotions of others - such as anger, sadness, anger - they can not understand. They lack the ability to understand the feelings of others, that is to show empathy and to develop compassion. Thus they often make a considerate and distanceless impression and behave conformist.
People with Asperger syndrome try - unlike people with autism - well, to make contact with other people. However, they can not assess whether they behave a situation appropriate or how someone will react to a statement. Deep friendships they do not develop normally.
During the early childhood autism - a developmental disorder that is similar to Asperger's syndrome - language development is severely delayed start children with Asperger syndrome often very early to speak. Often already sounded the first words before the child can walk. Asperger's sufferers often have a large vocabulary and a versatile language. However, the voice acts rather monotonous. Speaking is not adapted to the situation: Those affected can not interpret the reactions of those around them and do not know in what situations it quiet, calm or, for example should not speak loudly. Rather, they are talking about when they just feel like this, rather than to be guided by their counterparts. Often they talk to themselves. Nonverbal signals they can not correctly interpretThe facial expressions and gestures or the tone of their counterpart is a closed book for them.
Many people with Asperger syndrome develop interests with which they are very intense, employ nearly obsessed or who are especially unusual and special. Some learn, for example timetables by heart, others deal with mathematical tasks, others fascinating historical questions or data. Asperger's children may deal quite well with things that interest their peers - such as dinosaurs or a cartoon character - but in a much greater extent than other children. Or they specialize in specific details.
This specialization and their urge to pursue their hobby to a particular degree, individuals with Asperger's syndrome can sometimes produce outstanding achievements in their field. The downside: Despite sometimes astonishing skills or knowledge potential Asperger's sufferers can not be used in a social context their skills so not embedded in a larger context. But if some individuals may indeed retrieve large amounts of data, they do not use meaningful. Their interests occupy so much space that everyday activities are impossible sometimes.
Asperger's sufferers tend to stereotypes, that is, they feel the need to perform certain activities always follow the same pattern. They last about as a child in certain rituals, align themselves according to established procedures, or times or always take the same path. Sudden changes overwhelm them and throw their everyday life off track - they need routine.
The symptoms in Asperger's syndrome are similar in part to the early childhood autism, but are weaker. During the early childhood autism manifests itself already in early childhood, falling Children with Asperger syndrome usually only in kindergarten or school age. Your nonverbal behavior similar to early childhood autistic, they show symptoms such as stereotyped behavior and limited activities and interests.
Although Asperger's sufferers have some similarities to autistic people, there are clear differences between the two diseases.
It is believed that several factors favor an ASD. The exact causes are, however, not yet fully understood.
An important role plays a genetic componentThe Asperger syndrome occurs more frequently in some families. Scientists suggest that up to 20 genes are involved in the development of pervasive developmental disorders such as Asperger's syndrome. In addition, probably other factors influence in the development of Asperger's syndrome, so particularly organic brain and biochemical abnormalities that explain the behavior of Asperger's affected part.
The ability to convey someone's own needs and feelings to empathize with other people and to understand their thoughts and feelings is by neuroscientists as Theory of Mind designated.
Persons who are affected by Asperger syndrome, here have significant deficits. They can mimic, gesture or voice to another person only with difficulty or not suggest, for example. They lack the ability to imagine that other people have their own thoughts and feelings - and according to them, the thoughts and feelings of others not understand (lack of empathy). Apparently here different areas of the brain play a role. Thus, the activity in certain areas of the so-called prefrontal cortex that are important for empathy, decreased in Asperger's patients.
However, a different region of the brain seems to be partly responsible for the lack of empathy of Asperger's sufferers: the Mandelkern (Amygdala). The amygdala is located in the so-called limbic system of the brain and regulates, among other emotional reactions. The amygdala is in people with Asperger's syndrome abnormalities, as well as an area in the temporal lobe, which controls the perception and recognition of faces.
In addition, the so-called mirror neurons of importance: mirror neurons become active spontaneously when a person observes another in an activity. In the brain of the observer nerve cells (neurons) excited that trigger the same stimuli as if the observer exercising the activity itself. Presumably, the mirror neuron system is impaired in individuals with ASD.
The ability to embed things in an overall context, refer to psychologists as central coherence. People with Asperger syndrome have problems with it: you can not perceive as a whole the environment.
Rather, those affected tend to be selective, detailed perception, that is, they are very interested in details and focus on individual objects or situations - but they can make the connection. They see literally "the forest for the trees", The exact causes of this phenomenon have so far, however, unknown.
Many people with Asperger syndrome have problems with it, to plan and implement actions (known as. Executive functions). They are not flexible, that is, something unexpected happens, they can not to react appropriately and looking spontaneously for another solution, but keep stubbornly to its rules. There may be the cause in changes in the prefrontal cortex in the brain.